MOSFET = Metal + Oxide + Semi-conductor + Field + Effect + Transistor
This is called as MOS because it contains Metal gate and Oxide between semiconductor and Metal.
There are two types of MOSFET
The IRF540N is a great MOSFET to start turning bigger loads on and off. With three components you can turn on and off just about any DC load you have.
Turn loads on and off with your Arduino! Use 5V to control up to 100V. Add a motor, solenoid, or get creative!
This gate terminal can be connected to evive pins to control higher currents through MOSFET.
A typical MOSFET can handle upto 100V 10A current without overloading and excessive heating.